Station Name: KEMPSTON AND ELSTOW


[Source: Nick Catford]


Date opened: c 30 October 1905
Location: Immediately west of the Midland Railway. North side of Ampthill Road
Company on opening: London & North Western Railway
Date closed to passengers: 5 May 1941
Date closed completely: 5 May 1941
Company on closing: London Midland & Scottish Railway
Present state: Demolished
County: Bedfordshire
OS Grid Ref: TL042472
Date of visit: 16 February 2014

Notes: Two temporary stations were provided for the Bedford Agricultural Show in 1849. One was on the Midland Railway; the other was on the Bedford to Bletchley line immediately west of the point where the Midland Railway crossed over the London & North Western Railway. The stations were open for five days from 13 – 17 July 1874

The London & North Western Railway opened Kempston & Elstow on the site of the temporary station in 1905 to cater for the new rail-motor service between Bletchley and Bedford which began on 1 December 1905; it was one of seven new halts. The exact opening date is unclear. One LNWR record states that the 'rail motor-car has been operating between Bletchley and Bedford since 30 October'. Railway Magazine (December 1905) reports that the service was planned to start on 1 November and was delayed at the last minute because of unreliability and a 1 December re-start is mentioned. Other contemporary documents and publications are contradictory.

As built, Kempston & Elstow was very basic with a 50ft low platform constructed of old sleepers at rail level with a nameboard and one oil lamp.  The 1926 map (reproduced below) shows a possible shelter to the rear of the southbound platform.  The rail-motors were fitted with folding steps for passengers boarding or alighting at Kempston & Elstow and the other halts.

The halt was built close to an old road bridge called Cow Bridge that once crossed over a tributary of the River Ouse.  There was a level crossing where the road crossed the LNWR line. The gate keeper’s cottage, which predated the halt, was built in a similar architectural style to buildings within the Woburn estate and was very similar to the station building at Lidlington.  When the Midland line was built in 1868 it crossed the LNWR line at the site of the crossing. The road (formerly A418, now B530) was diverted to the south running under the Midland Railway and passing the gate keeper’s cottage before regaining its old alignment.  Although the crossing had gone, the gate keeper’s cottage remained and between October 1905 and May 1941 it was used by the porter who staffed the nearby Kempston & Elstow Halt. Since the closure of the halt the house has been in private occupation and in recent years has been substantially extended.

Along with the other rail-motor halts on the Bedford - Bletchley line, during WW1 Kempston & Elstow closed on 1 January 1917 as an economy measure and reopened on 5 May 1919.

In 1939 there were 13 trains in each direction on weekdays but no Sunday service. There was no commuter service from the halt as the first train of the day to Cambridge was at 10.37 and to Bletchley at 10.57. During WW2 three of the halts on the Bedford to Bletchley line closed; Kempston & Elstow was one of these. It closed on 5 May 1941 and never reopened.

BRIEF HISTORY OF THE BEDFORD RAILWAY
A group of local businessmen first promoted a line to Bedford in 1844. The proposal was supported by engineer George Stephenson. A public meeting was held on 23 April 1844 where there was some discussion about where the line should form a junction with the London & Birmingham. Stephenson was keen that the junction should be at Bletchley and although there was spirited opposition his proposal was eventually accepted.

A prospectus for the Bedford & London & Birmingham Railway was drawn up on 28 May 1844, with the engineers being named as George and Robert Stephenson. When complete the line was to be worked by the London & Birmingham Railway; work started on 13 December 1845 and was completed in September 1846

During the construction of the Bedford line, the London & Birmingham Railway amalgamated with the Grand Junction Railway to form the London & North Western Railway who took over the running of the line.

Intermediate stations from Bletchley were Fenny Stratford, Ridgmont, Lidlington and Manston (later renamed Millbrook). The line opened on 18 November 1846; the line from Oxford - Bletchley opened on 20 May 1851. The final link from Bedford to Cambridge opened on 7 July 1862 provided an important cross-country line between Oxford and Cambridge, forming one of the few east-west routes with the capability of reaching the east coast ports. Most services, however, ran from Oxford to Bletchley and from Bletchley to Cambridge.



A rail-motor service between Bletchley and Belford was introduced on 1 December 1905. Seven new stations were opened at Bow Brickhill, Aspley Guise, Husborne Crawley, Wootton Pillinge, Wootton Broadmead, Kempston Hardwick and Kempston & Elstow. An eighth one called Brickyard Halt is shown in company records near Wootton Pillinge but this never appeared in a public timetable. Whereas the Great Western Railway named such additional unstaffed stations ‘halts’ the London & North Western Railway referred to them as ‘motor’ or ‘rail-motor’ stations, and subsequently there has been uncertainty about whether Bow Brickhill and the others should be called ‘halts’. The Ordnance Survey practice for the Bedford Railway motor stations was to identify them as halts until the London Midland Region ceased to use this suffix in 1968.

The rail-motors were superseded by pull-and-push units which continued in operation until the introduction of DMUs in 1959.

The Second World War intensified traffic on the line as never before. With the return of peace and the nationalisation of the run-down railway network the newly formed British Railways Board was looking to close unprofitable lines.

In 1955 the Railway Modernisation Plan proposed improvements to cross-country facilities between Oxford and Cambridge with the aim of maintaining a link between the major main line railways outside the congested Greater London area thereby allowing freight traffic to be transferred between three railway regions and easing the burden on London marshalling yards. Within a few years the policy changed and the line was not upgraded with the Bletchley flyover remaining as a monument to the fruitless proposal.

An attempt was made to close the Oxford - Bletchley - Cambridge line in 1959 but local pressure succeeded in winning a reprieve. There was some relief when Dr Beeching did not include the cross country Oxford to Cambridge line in his closure proposals in 1963, but just one year later the British Railways Board published closure plans for the whole route. The introduction of new diesel trains in the 1960s allowed British Railways to run much faster trains, and the need for a cross country service declined as passengers found it quicker to travel between Oxford and Cambridge via London. The lines between Oxford and Bletchley and Bedford and Cambridge closed after the last day of service on 30 December 1967; the section between Bletchley and Bedford remained open, although downgraded.

All of the stations lost their goods and parcels facilities, and every station except Bletchley became an unstaffed halt from 15 July 1968. Closure was once again proposed, and it was announced that the remaining section of the Oxford - Cambridge route would close in October 1972. There were numerous objections to the closure which was postponed until a suitable replacement bus service could be introduced. Once this was in place closure was announced for 31 December 1972.

The Bedford Rail Users' Association was formed to fight the closure, and the opposition was so strong that British Rail was forced to postpone once again, pending an appeal by local groups. At this time government thinking on rail closures was changing and a grant was provided to maintain the service. With the development of the large new town of Milton Keynes, which incorporated Bletchley, the line began attracting new customers.


This LMS timetable from June 1947 shows Kempston and Elstow without any trains stopping. This indicates that the closure in 1941 was still considered to be temporary at this time.

In 1973 a 20-year contract between the Greater London Council and the London Brick Company assured the line’s future. The contract was worth £10m to British Rail who began operating block trains between new sidings at Stewartby and a new handling depot at Hendon.

For much of the twentieth century this 16-mile line had a particularly distinctive character, its closely-spaced stations being either in the Gothic Revival style or diminutive halts. The numerous staffed level crossings also gave the line a certain charm; even in the mid 1980s the passenger would be aware of gate-keepers standing at each crossing as their train passed. The landscape was also distinctive between Bedford and Ridgmont as the route was hemmed in by forests of tall chimneys and massive clay pits. Nowhere was this more the case than at Stewartby. From 1968 until its replacement in 1984 on a new route into Bedford (Midland) the Bedford – Bletchley line had its eastern terminus at Bedford St Johns, an unstaffed ‘halt’ an inconvenient distance from the main line station.

The Bletchley to Bedford line closed on 23 July 2004 for rebuilding. This included re-signalling, the replacement of crossing gates with lifting barriers and the staggering of platforms at Stewartby, Lidlington and Aspley Guise. The line reopened on 6 September 2004 controlled from new Marston Vale Signalling Centre and Ridgmont.

The service is now operated by Marston Vale Community Rail Partnership part of London Midland who operate services on the West Coast Main Line from London Euston previously run by Silverlink and in the West Midlands previously run by Central Trains. The franchise was originally due to expire in September 2015 but in March 2013 was extended until June 2017.

The Bedford - Bletchley (Marston Vale) Line is one of the two remaining sections of the former Varsity Line (Oxford - Cambridge) still in passenger use. In the 2011 Autumn Statement the Chancellor of the Exchequer, George Osborne, announced the allocation of £270 million for the East West Rail Consortium to reinstate the Oxford – Bletchley – Bedford section of the Varsity Line. The service will link the Marston Vale Line (calling at Bedford, Lidlington, Woburn Sands and Bletchley only) to Winslow, Bicester Town, Oxford and Reading. The Consortium hopes later to reopen the Bedford — Cambridge section, for which a new route may be required, possibly involving the use of the East Coast main line south from Sandy then the Hitchin – Cambridge line, with a new north-to-east chord just north of Hitchin.

On 16 July 2012 the Coalition Government announced that the Marston Vale route would be electrified, as will the currently disused line from Bletchley to Oxford. This would form part of a wider 'Electric Spine' stretching from Yorkshire and the West Midlands to Southampton and South Coast Ports.

Ticket from Michael Stewart. Bradshaw from Nick Catford. Route map drawn by Alan Young

To see other stations on the Bedford Railway between Bletchley and Bedford (The Marston Vale Line) click on the station name:
Fenny Stratford, Bow Brickhill, Woburn Sands, Aspley Guise, Husborne Crawley (Closed), Ridgmont, Lidlington, Millbrook, Stewartby, Wooton Broadmead (Closed), & Kempston Hardwick

To see the other stations on the Oxford - Cambridge line click on the station name: Oxford Rewley Road, Port Meadow Halt, Wolvercote Halt, Oxford Road Halt, Islip, Oddington Halt, Charlton Halt, Wendlebury Halt, Bicester London Road, Launton, Marsh Gibbon & Poundon, Claydon, Verney Junction, Winslow, Swanbourne, Bedford St. Johns, Willington, Blunham, Girtford Halt, Sandy, Potton, Gamlingay, Old North Road & Lords Bridge


Looking north-east towards the site of Kempston & Elstow Halt in the late 1960s. The far end of the short platforms was level with the bush in the garden of the former porter’s cottage. The 1868 Midland Railway line is seen in the background; this is close to the site of the former Ampthill Road crossing.
Copyright photo from Tony Harden collection


1901 1:2,500 OS map shows the 1868 Midland line with Ampthill Road diverted to run under the line before regaining its former alignment. The former crossing keeper’s/porter’s cottage is seen to the west of the Midland line.

1926 1:2,500 OS map shows the short platforms of Kempston & Elstow Halt to the north of Cow Bridge. What might be a shelter is shown behind the southbound platform.

The former porter's cottage c late 1960s. The platforms were to the right of the cottage running from the garden fence to the advertising hoarding.
Copyright photo from Tony Harden collection

The former crossing keeper’s/porter's cottage c late 1960s. The building was very similar to those provided for level crossing gate keepers within the Woburn estate. It was built of yellow brick with red brick dressings. It had a steeply pitched roof with ornamental roof and ridge tiles. There was a decorative entrance porch, seen on the right. At Lidlington this kind of structure was used for the station building, and the porch was the public entrance to the station; the building at Kempston & Elstow was probably not used by the public but was lived in by the porter who staffed the halt. The north end of the up platform was on the right.
Copyright photo from Tony Harden collection

Ampthill Road, seen in the foreground, now runs to the south of the Marston Vale line as seen in this c late 1960s view. Before the Midland Railway was built in 1868 it crossed the LNWR at an oblique angle to the north of the cottage.
Copyright photo from Tony Harden collection

Looking north-east from the site of Kempston & Elstow's northbound platform in May 1970.
Photo by John Mann

The original part of the porter’s cottage can just be made out in this view looking south-west in February 2014. The steeply pitched roof with the decorated ridge tiles and the chimney are part of the original building; everything else is new.
Photo by Nick Catford

The former porter's cottage seen from the south in February 2014. Nothing in this view is part of the original building apart from the chimney which can just be made out between the two gables.
Photo by Nick Catford

Looking south-west towards the site of Kempston & Elstow Halt in February 2014. The northbound platform was by the tall tree seen to the right of the line.
Photo by Nick Catford

Looking north-east at the site of Kempston & Elstow Halt in February 2014.
Photo by Nick Catford

The much altered Kempston & Elstow Halt porter’s cottage in February 2014.
Photo by Nick Catford


 

 

 

[Source: Nick Catford]




Last updated: Saturday, 22-Mar-2014 11:18:56 GMT
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